Search Indigenous Plant Attributes

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  1. Acacia karroo

    Acacia karroo (= Vachellia karroo) is a very hardy, semi-deciduous, fast-growing and drought-resistant tree.

    Abundant, fragrant, yellow puffball flowers light up the landscape, and adorn the tree intermittently (in response to rain) throughout summer.

  2. Acacia mellifera

    Acacia mellifera (=Senegalia mellifera) is very drought resistant, hardy, thickset, deciduous Acacia with vicious, hook thorns.

  3. Acacia rehmanniana

    Acacia rehmanniana (=Vachellia rehmanniana) is a hardy, drought resistant, semi-deciduous Acacia with small, attractive grey-green, velvety leaves.

    The beautiful red bark on the young stems glows in the sunlight while the mature bark has dark brown rough strips with a red background.

    Try to plant the tree where it either catches the rising or setting sun, when the glowing stems are a sight to behold.

  4. Acacia sieberiana woodii

    The Acacia sieberiana woodii (=Vachellia sieberiana) is a hardy (protect from frost when young) large, semi-deciduous, flat-topped Acacia is fast growing.

  5. Acacia tortilis

    Acacia tortilis (=Vachellia tortilis) is a hardy, deciduous, drought resistant, slow growing umbrella-shaped Acacia.

  6. Ziziphus rivularis

    Ziziphus rivularis is a hardy, rare, evergreen to semi-deciduous, fast growing small tree with attractive glossy, olive green foliage with interesting but quite variable venation.

    It bears small, yellowish, inconspicuous flowers in November.

  7. Ziziphus mucronata

    Ziziphus mucronata is a very hardy, deciduous, small to medium sized tree with both hook and straight thorns. The glossy leaves turn a beautiful, golden yellow in autumn.

    It has attractive, small, yellowish flowers from October to January and hard, round, reddish-brown berries with a sweet, powdery pulp, which are known to be used as a kind of porridge.

  8. Scolopia mundii

    Scolopia mundtii is a very hardy, evergreen to semi-deciduous, medium growing, small or medium sized tree which is rare and even more rare in cultivation.

    The coppice shoots of this tree have spines which soon disappear.

  9. Croton gratissimus

    Croton gratissimus is a hardy, deciduous, small to medium sized, drought resistant tree with lovely pale grey bark.

  10. Brachylaena discolor

    Brachylaena discolor is a hardy, evergreen, fast growing tree or large shrub with beautiful silver and dark green leaves. White, nectar rich flowers are borne from July to September.

    Male and female flowers on separate plants. Ideal as a windbreak and screening plant.

  11. Acacia caffra

    Acacia caffra (=Senegalia caffra) is a very hardy, deciduous, drought resistant, graceful tree with feathery foliage that gives the tree a weeping shape.

  12. Millettia grandis

    Milletia grandis is a hardy, decorative, medium sized, briefly deciduous tree that has a dense spreading crown.

    The new growth of the large leaves is a beautiful bronze colour when they first unfurl in spring and then turn almost lime green, darkening with age.

    It has large, magnificent, erect spikes of purple pea-like flowers that stand out well above the leaves from November to March – a sight to behold.

    These are followed by attractive, large velvety, brown pods - another striking feature of this beautiful tree.

  13. Ficus ingens

    Ficus ingens is a fairly hardy, drought resistant fig with a grey to yellowish grey bark.

  14. Ficus sycomorus

    Ficus sycomorus is a fairly hardy, medium to large spreading fig tree with a distinctive yellow stem that is often seen along riverbanks.

  15. Galpinia transvaalica

    Galpinia transvaalica is a hardy, decorative, thickset, small to medium sized, sometimes multi-stemmed, evergreen tree. It has waxy, glossy, wavy-edged leaves that flush an amazing red in spring.

    Showy white flowers are borne from December to April which attract insects to the garden.

    It is also a butterfly host tree. A quick growing small to medium sized tree that makes a good container plant.

    It can also be pruned into an attractive, formal hedge in sun or semi-shade.

    Size 3 to 10 m

  16. Heteromorpha trifoliata abyssinica

    Heteromorpha trifoliata is a slender, very hardy, deciduous, drought resistant, fast growing tree.

  17. Kiggelaria africana

    Kiggelaria africana is a very hardy, evergreen to semi-deciduous, fast growing, medium to large sized tree which has very variable leaves.

    Small, yellow flowers are borne from August to January, sexes are on separate trees, with solitary, larger, pendulous female flowers and smaller male flowers in clusters.

  18. Kirkia wilmsii

    Kirkia wilmsii is a fairly hardy, deciduous, often multi-stemmed tree with beautiful, fine, feathery foliage.

  19. Aloe marlothii

    Aloe marlothii is a very hardy, large, upright, single-stemmed Aloe with a rosette of large, fleshy, thorny leaves.

  20. Buddleja saligna

    Buddleja saligna is a very hardy, evergreen, fast growing, drought resistant tree with silver-grey leaves and beautiful twisted bark that looks almost woven.

    It bears profuse panicles of sweetly scented, white flowers from August to January that attract insects and birds.

  21. Bersama lucens

    Bersama lucens is a fairly hardy, evergreen, small, compact tree with a well-developed crown and beautiful blotchy, wrinkled, grey bark.

    The young leaves are a brilliant glossy russet brown, turning dark green when mature.

    The small greenish white flowers, in long narrow heads, appear from September to June and are followed by green capsules that split to reveal scarlet seeds that attract birds.

    The bark is sought after in traditional medicine and this species is becoming increasingly rare.

    It is a beautiful, decorative tree for a shady to semi-shady part of the garden.

  22. Chionanthus foveolatus

    Chionanthus foveolatus is a fairly hardy, evergreen, forest tree that varies hugely in size depending on where it grows.

    In forests it is huge but in gardens in Gauteng will probably not grow more than 10m tall.

  23. Canthium gilfillanii

    Canthium gilfillanii is a very hardy, evergreen, drought resistant tree with interesting, angular branching patterns and beautiful silver bark.

    It has small greenish flowers from August to December. which attract insects.

  24. Catha edulis

    Catha edulis is a small, hardy, fast-growing, evergreen to semi deciduous tree that has a lovely slender shape.

    The glossy green leaves and young branches droop, giving the tree a graceful, weeping look.

  25. Combretum krausii

    Combretum krausii is a hardy, fast growing, semi-deciduous tree with glossy dark green leaves that turn vivid red and purple in autumn.

  26. Cryptocarya transvaalensis

    Cryptocarya transvaalensis is a hardy, evergreen tree with beautiful glossy dark green foliage.

  27. Cunonia capensis

    Cunonia capensis is a hardy, evergreen, fast growing, small to medium sized tree.

    The beautiful compound leaves have red petioles and large, red, spoon-shaped stipules that give the tree an overall reddish look and make this a beautiful foliage plant.

    It blooms profusely with white, sweetly scented, upright ‘bottlebrush’ flowers from February to May that attract a myriad of insects and butterflies. The fruit attracts birds to the garden.

    A handsome tree and good garden subject, which needs a cool, moist area.

  28. Curtisia dentata

    Curtisia dentata is a medium-sized, hardy, evergreen tree that can grow quite large in moist forested areas.

  29. Dais cotinifolia

    Dais cotinifolia is  a very hardy, fast growing, deciduous, small tree with attractive slightly blue green leaves.

    In spring it has scattered pink leaves in the crown adding to the interest.

  30. Diospyros whyteana

    Diospyros whyteana is a large, hardy, very decorative, evergreen shrub or small tree with glossy, almost mirror-like, dark green leaves.

    The clusters of small, fragrant, bell-like white flowers are borne from July to October The fruits are red when ripe, enclosed by bladder-like structures.

  31. Dombeya rotundifolia

    Dombeya rotundifolia is a very hardy, deciduous, drought and fire resistant, upright tree. It has round, leathery, rough leaves, and attractive, rough, fissured bark which is utilized by Woodpeckers.

    This is one of the first trees to bloom in spring where it stands out on the bare hillsides in snowy white patches. Showy clusters of sweetly scented white flowers start blooming in profusion on the bare branches in July and continue well into September before the leaves appear.

  32. Ekebergia capensis

    Ekebergia capensis is a fairly hardy, semi-deciduous, lush, medium sized, good shade tree with decorative berries that are much favoured by birds.

    The small, scented greenish-white flowers appear from August to December.

  33. Erythrina latissima

    Erythrina latissima is a fairly hardy, medium sized, sturdy, deciduous tree with magnificent, huge, leathery leaves.

    The compact, huge spikes of red to scarlet flowers appear on the leafless tree in late winter and early spring. These are followed by long pods, sometimes in bunches, which split to reveal beautiful orange-red seeds.

    The bark is rough and corky and completes the picture of a stocky beautiful specimen tree.

    It needs well-drained soil and protection from frost when young.

  34. Erythrina lysistemon

    Erythrina lysistemon is a hardy, deciduous tree with large trifoliate leaves.

  35. Halleria lucida

    Halleria lucida is a hardy, evergreen, small to medium sized tree with attractive foliage and a graceful drooping habit.

  36. Heteropyxis canescens

    Heteropyxis canescens is a rare, hardy, small, semi-deciduous tree that occurs in forested ravines and riverine forests in a restricted area of Mpumalanga and Swaziland.

    It has beautiful, sparkling, beige bark that flakes off in patches leaving attractive blotches.

    The quite large, decorative leaves have interesting venation and smell of lavender when crushed.

  37. Heteropyxis natalensis

    Heteropyxis natalensis is a hardy, slender, upright, narrow, semi-deciduous tree with truly beautiful, pale creamy bark that, with age, develops beautiful apricot coloured patches on it.

  38. Apodytes dimidiata

    Apodytes dimidiata is a hardy, evergreen, beautifully shaped, fairly fast growing tree with dense, glossy, dark green foliage.

    Densely clustered spikes of strongly scented, snow-white flowers that are borne from September to April, especially after good rains.

  39. Kigelia africana

    Kigelia africana is a fairly hardy, very fast growing, briefly deciduous, medium sized tree.

    It has a straight stem and a rounded crown.

    The large compound leaves are clustered at the ends of the branches with lovely coppery coloured new growth.

  40. Loxostylis alata

    Loxostylis alata is a fairly hardy, evergreen, small to medium sized decorative tree with corky grey bark.

    It bears sprays of pretty white, scented flowers from October to April.

  41. Mimusops caffra

    Mimusops caffra is a hardy, medium-sized to large, evergreen tree with a dense neat crown of attractive grey-green leaves.

    This tree tolerates heavy salt spray and this same mechanism allows it to tolerate quite a lot of frost even though it is a plant of the dune forest.

    It bears creamy white flowers from September to December which attract, bees, carpenter bees and sunbirds.

  42. Mimusops zeyheri

    Mimusops zeyheri is a semi-hardy, drought resistant, fairly fast growing decorative tree that has a spreading, densely rounded, evergreen crown and deeply grooved bark.

  43. Noltea africana

    Noltea africana is a very hardy, evergreen, very fast growing, small to medium sized tree.

    The glossy leaves are darker above and paler underneath, and have purple petioles. The branchlets are also purplish-red.

    The flowers are pretty, small, white sprays borne in the axils of the leaves from August to September. The black seeds are encased in a three-lobed, brown woody capsule that splits to release them when ripe.

    A decorative tree that is ideal for the smaller garden but should be kept as a single stem.

    Grows well in sun and semi-shade.

  44. Freylinia tropica Blue

    Freylinia tropica "Blue" is a very hardy, evergreen, slender shrub that has spreading branches, smooth grey bark and shiny, bright green leaves.

    It blooms profusely in late winter when little else is flowering but does bear some bright blue flowers throughout the year.

    It makes a good screen plant and can be clipped into a formal hedge or used in an informal hedge. It also makes a beautiful container plant.

    It grows in sun or semi-shade.

    Attracts insects and butterflies to the garden.

    Size 1 to 3m

  45. Olea europaea africana

    Olea europaea africana is a very hardy, evergreen, drought resistant tree with gorgeous silvery foliage and a rounded crown.

    It bears scented, greenish flowers from October to December followed by delicious edible small black Olives (these can be eaten directly from the tree and need no treatment to make them edible).

    It is an excellent bird and insect tree that is much favoured by wildlife.Birds love to probe under the rough dark bark for insects.

  46. Olinia emarginata

    Olinia emarginata is a very frost-hardy, evergreen small to medium sized tree that can grow into a huge tree in forest situations.

  47. Pappea capensis

    Pappea capensis is a hardy, evergreen, very attractive, small to medium sized, neatly shaped, dense tree.

  48. Peltophorum africanum

    Peltophorum africanum is a hardy, deciduous, drought-resistant, small- to medium-sized tree with brown, rough, longitudinally fissured bark. 

    The lovely fine, feathery leaves resemble those of Acacia species but the tree is thornless.

  49. Philenoptera violacea

    Philenoptera violacea is a hardy, small to medium sized, upright, semi-deciduous tree that has beautiful pale lavender-grey bark.

    It drops its attractive, large grey-green leaves in spring, at the same time as the new leaves begin to appear. The leaves are palatable to many species of game.

    The masses of beautiful large sprays of delicate, pea-like, lilac flowers are borne in October and November (sometimes September to December), and are sweetly scented.

  50. Phoenix reclinata

    Phoenix reclinata is a very hardy, evergreen, palm with shiny, light to dark green, long arching leaves that become spiny close to the stem.  

    The Palm Swift glues its nest to the fronds. It bears showy, creamy-white pollen-laden male flowers from August to October. (male and female flowers on separate plants).  Female flowers are yellowish.

    The luminous orange-brown fruit are borne in large hanging zig-zagged branches during late summer.

  51. Pittosporum viridiflorum

    Pittosporum viridiflorum is a very hardy, evergreen, small to medium-sized, well-shaped tree with glossy leaves that have a resinous smell when crushed.

    The bark has small pits in it and is an attractive feature of this tree. It is grey in young trees and becomes darker, rough and slightly fissured in mature specimens, and smells slightly of liquorice.

    The dense clusters of sweetly scented, cream flowers are borne from September to November and are followed by brilliant red, sticky fruit in yellow-green capsules, that attracts birds.

    A beautiful garden tree, which can be grown in sun or semi-shade, and can be used in forest and bush clumps as well as being used as a hedge plant. Wonderful shade tree, and with its non-aggressive root system is ideal for small gardens and containers.

    Size 3 to 10m

  52. Podocarpus elongatus

    Podocarpus elongatus is the smallest of the Yellowwood trees and is very hardy and evergreen.

    It has attractive narrow, blue-green leaves and is slow growing.

    The female cones develop into fleshy, bright red, edible fruits with 1 or 2 seeds that mature rapidly.

  53. Ptaeroxylon obliquum

    Ptaeroxylon obliquum is hardy, drought resistant, medium sized to large, fairly fast growing and evergreen or deciduous (depending on the conditions).

  54. Pterocarpus rotundifolius

    Pterocarpus rotundifolius is a fairly hardy, decorative, multi-stemmed small to medium sized, deciduous tree that grows naturally in Bushveld and on rocky hillsides.

  55. Rapanea melanophloeos

    Rapanea melanophloes is a hardy, small to medium sized, evergreen tree with dark leaves that have a purplish cast to them. It also has really attractive bark.

    The small greenish-white flowers from May to July attract insects and bees.

  56. Rauvolfia caffra

    Rauvolfia caffra is a hardy, evergreen to briefly deciduous, upright tree with beautiful large, glossy drooping, lanceolate leaves.

    The trumpet-shaped, small, white flowers are carried in clusters at the end of the branches from May to October and are sweet smelling, attracting swarms of bees as well as wasps and butterflies.

    Plant in a protected position.

  57. Rhus chirindensis

    Rhus (Searsia) chirindensis is a hardy, deciduous, fast growing tree that is sometimes multi-stemmed and has a spreading rounded crown. The bark is rough and darker on the mature main stems, and smooth and somewhat shiny on the young stems. Both sometimes have woody spines, but particularly the young stems.

    The large glossy, dark green leaves are tri-foliate and reddish when young and turn beautiful red autumn colours.

    Sprays of small flowers are borne from August to March. (male and female flowers on separate plants, therefore only female plants bear fruit).

  58. Rhus lancea

    Searsia (=Rhus) lancea is a very hardy, evergreen, drought resistant tree with a graceful, weeping form. The dark, fissured bark contrasts beautifully with the long, thin, bright, trifoliate leaves.

    The inconspicuous yellow-green flowers (male and female flowers on separate plants, therefore only female plants bear fruit) from June to September attract insects and are followed by bunches of edible fruit that attract birds. The small flowers are borne in abundance and give the tree a lacy look when in bloom.

    An excellent garden subject that thrives in clay soils and is fast growing if watered regularly. Having said that it is also drought hardy. Extremely popular street tree and a good avenue tree.  Makes a great climbing tree for children if the lower branches are not pruned off.

    Plant in sun or semi-shade in virtually any soil type.

     Size up to 8m

  59. Rhus leptodictya

    Rhus leptodictya is a very hardy, evergreen, drought resistant, small, decorative tree with a drooping crown of bright green foliage. The bark on young stems is reddish brown, becoming darker and rougher as the tree matures. The lovely reddish wood is used to make beautiful small pieces of furniture.

    The inconspicuous flowers (male and female flowers on separate plants, therefore only female plants bear fruit) are borne from January to April.

  60. Rhus pendulina

    Rhus pendulina is a very hardy, very fast growing, drought resistant, semi-deciduous shade tree with a willow-like habit. The leaves are a dull green and bark is light grey-brown and smooth on young branches, becoming rough and scaly as the branches mature.

    The sprays of inconspicuous flowers (male and female flowers on separate plants, therefore only female plants bear fruit) that attract insects are borne from September to January These are followed by bunches of fruit that attract birds.

    Do not plant near walls, pools, pipes or paving as it has an aggressive shallow root system.

    This is not a particularly long lived tree but is useful as a quick growing screening tree. Interplant with a longer living tree to ensure a permanent screen.

    It throws pretty, delicately dappled shade.

    Size up to 10m

  61. Rothmannia capensis

    Rothmannia capensis is a hardy, evergreen, small to medium sized tree.

  62. Mackaya bella

    Mackaya bella is a hardy, evergreen shrub with dark green, glossy leaves.

    It bears, magnificent long bunches of lilac or white, trumpet-shaped flowers from early spring to November.

    It grows in deep shade where the flowers seem to glow in the dark. The beautiful flowers have purple streaks in them that act as landing lights to guide insects to the nectar and in the process pollinate the flower.

    It can tolerate a bit of morning sun provided it is watered well.

  63. Maytenus bachmannii

    Maytenus bachmannii is a very pretty evergreen shrub with small, narrow leaves that have pink stalks.

    It bears abundant, small, white flowers that have pink stalks from January to March and attract insects to the garden.

  64. Vepris lanceolata

    Vepris lanceolata is a hardy, evergreen, very attractive tree with apple green foliage.

  65. Leucosidea sericea

    Leucosidea sericea is a decorative, very hardy, evergreen, fast growing, low branching small, tree with aromatic leaves that have silvery hairs.

    The yellowish-green flowers that are borne from August to December are sticky with nectar and held in candle-like spikes. The flowers attract many insects with their pollen and nectar.

    It has attractive, dark, fissured, peeling stem bark. One can make the most of this by pruning them up to have clean stems or trunks and lower branches. It makes a beautiful specimen tree in a small garden.

    Requires regular watering or plant in damp areas to keep it looking good.

  66. Grewia occidentalis

    Grewia occidentalis is a very hardy, fast growing, evergreen shrub with attractive, rough, glossy, quite dark green leaves and trailing stems.

    It bears gorgeous star-like pink flowers with a cluster of prominent, bright yellow stamens from October to January

     It also bears distinctive, edible fruits that are clustered together in a square or cross shape.

  67. Gardenia volkensii

    Gardenia volkensii is a hardy, drought resistant, semi-deciduous to evergreen tree or large shrub with an interesting, rigid, branching pattern and beautiful silvery bark.

    It has attractive shiny, bright green leaves.

  68. Aristida junciformis

    Aristada junciformis is a handsome, very hardy, thick tufted grass with copious wispy seed heads that sway beautifully in the wind.

    The seeds persist on the plant for an extended period from November. to May, and the culms are slow to yellow with the onset of winter, making this a good landscape grass.

    A particularly good species for providing habitat for Vlei Rats and other grassland or wetland wildlife. Will grow well in wet, clay soil, as well as under normal garden conditions.

    It is also well utilized in the making of brooms.

    Size up to 60cm

  69. Aloe arborescens

    Aloe arborescens is a very hardy, drought-resistant, large, branched Aloe with narrow, curved, bluish-grey leaves that form rosettes.

  70. Tinnea barbata

    Tinnea barbata is a pretty but little-known shrub that deserves a lot more attention as a great garden subject.

    It is evergreen with dark bluish-green leaves that are slightly hairy, and paler underneath. Tinnea is considered semi-hardy (probably frost tolerant due to it's high altitude natural habitat).  It bears many blueish purple flowers that hang from the branches like little jewels. 

    Tinnea should be pruned to keep a neat shape, as its natural growth habit is to climb or scramble over other plants. 

    Plant in semi-shade in well composted soil.

    Size: 1.5

  71. Brillantaisia subulugurica

    Brilliantasia subulugurica is a fairly hardy, semi-deciduous, vigorous, fast growing shrub with large, glossy, attractive leaves.

  72. Aloe arborescens Yellow

    Aloe arborescens yellow is a  very hardy, drought resistant, branched Aloe with narrow curved, bluish-grey leaves that form rosettes.

    Three to four flowering stems of yellow flowers arise from each rosette and bloom all winter.

  73. Chloris gayana

    Chloris gayana is a hardy, evergreen very leafy tufted perennial grass.

    It has finger-like (digitate) flowering heads from November to May.

  74. Halleria elliptica

    Halleria elliptica is a hardy evergreen shrub, with very showy, orange-red, broadly tubular flowers in summer and winter.

    The olive green foliage turns purple in winter which contrasts beautifully with the orange-red flowers.

  75. Aloe ciliaris

    Aloe ciliaris is a hardy, climbing Aloe with stems climbing up to 5m if they are supported, but otherwise makes a lovely, clump forming sprawling shrub. 

    The leaves are in loose rosettes around the stem and fringed with white hairs.

  76. Aloe cryptopoda wickensii

    Aloe cryptopoda wickensii is a hardy Aloe that has a single, large stemless, densely packed rosette of grey-green succulent leaves.

    The flowers are variable and may be red, yellow or bi-coloured, with yellow and red flowers. Depending on conditions, flowering time can vary between May and July.

    This popular, easy garden plant provides a spectacular display when in full flower.

  77. Lantana rugosa

    Lantana rugosa is a hardy, evergreen, much branched perennial shrub with rough stems and leaves.The leaves are small (the drier the conditions, the smaller the leaves), bright green and aromatic when crushed. Little clusters of pinky purple flowers are borne from September to May, and are followed by clustered, juicy, purple fruit. An excellent addition to the wildlife garden.
    The flowers attract many pollinating insects, including butterflies. The fruit is eaten by people, monkeys and birds. It has a number of traditional medicinal uses.
    Plant in  well drained soil, and full sun to semi shade. It will flower and fruit best in full sun, but the more shade and water it receives, the larger the leaves will be. Prune well after flowering for it to maintain a good shape, otherwise it can become scraggly.
    Size up to 1.5m

  78. Gardenia cornuta

    Gardenia cornuta is a small, evergreen, decorative tree. It is multi-stemmed with grey-green mottled bark on erect, stiff branches.

    The leaves are clustered at the ends of the hard twigs, and are shiny light green with wavy margins.

    Scented, star-like white flowers adorn the tree from December to March, making it a sight to behold. They fade to creamy yellow as they get older.

    These are followed by oval woody fruit that turn yellow. The fruit is eaten by monkeys when it is young, and nyala also relish the fruit.

    Plant in a spot that is protected from frost, in sun or very light, dappled shade.

    Size up to 5m

  79. Nymphaea nouchali

    Nymphaea nouchali is a hardy, deciduous waterlily.

    It has glossy, circular, floating leaves that turn lovely colours in autumn.

    The flowers are a beautiful sky blue through pale lilac to pink flowers with masses of yellow stamens in the centre. These are carried on longish stems above the surface of the water from September to May.

    This is a submerged plant that should be planted to a depth of no less than 25cm in sun or light shade.

    Used in traditional medicine for coughs and colds.

    In habitat the fruit is eaten by the Purple Gallinule.


    Size: Floating parts spread to 1m diameter

  80. Turraea floribunda

    Turraea floribunda is a hardy, small, deciduous tree with a rounded crown of olive-green leaves that have distinct herringbone design veins.

    It drops its leaves in early spring and then the clusters of sweetly scented, large white flowers are borne in profusion along the bare stems (September to November).

    The beautiful green and white Honeysuckle-type flowers adorning the tree are a sight to behold and the scent is divine. The pretty red seeds are borne on large woody star-shaped pods.

    It is an important host tree for butterflies and moths and attracts many sunbirds and seed eating birds to the garden.

    This attractive tree is ideal for a small garden. Plant in well-drained, compost rich soil. Grows best in full sun.

    Size 3 to 5m

  81. Ortosiphon labiatus

    Ortosiphon labiatus is a very hardy, semi-deciduous, fast growing shrub. It forms a much branched rounded shrub with aromatic, heart-shaped leaves.

    From mid-summer to early winter it is covered in spikes of pinky-mauve tubular flowers that are irresistible to a number of insect pollinators. Butterflies especially enjoy the flowers.

    Pruning it back in early spring encourages flowering. Ideal for smaller spaces, plant in sun or semi-shade.

    Plant in well-composted soil, and although extremely drought hardy, watering well will keep it at its best.

    Size to 1.5m

  82. Cenchrus ciliaris

    Cenchrus ciliaris is a tufted, shrubby perennial grass with bright green to blue-green leaves that are up to a metre long.
    The grass culms are jointed, and roots often arise at these joints or nodes.

    The flower spikes are bristly and cat-tail like, carried on stalks just above the leaves.

  83. Plectranthus hereroensis

    Plectranthus hereroensis is a hardy, attractive, fast growing, evergreen but short-lived shrub. It's broad, bright green leaves contrast beautifully with darker foliage planted behind it.

    It is a particularly floriferous shrub, and if pruned regularly will bush out with many flowering stems. The deep bluish-purple flowers are borne in long tapered spikes from about April through to the end of May. 

    It is a host plant to a number of butterfly species, and an attractive food plant to bees and other insects.

    This shrub will flower and grow best in full sun, which is unusual for most Plectranthus species. Plant in well-drained soil, and add plenty of compost for healthy plants.
    If left unpruned, it can grow to 2m. 

    A most worthwhile addition to any garden, as it's lovely blue flowers contrast beautifully with other colourful plants flowering at this time of the year. 

    Some examples are Leonotis leonurus and some Aloe species, as well as Syncholostemon densiflorus and Euryops pectinatus. Although very drought hardy, it is suitable for gardens where frost is not too severe.

    Plectranthus hereroensis is being investigated further for compounds found in its roots that have shown anti-bacterial activity.

    Occurs in hilly terrain in sandy, dry savannah.

    Size: up to 2m, but generally about 1m

  84. Pycnostachys urticifolia

    Pycnostachys urticifolia is a hardy, evergreen, herbaceous perennial with angular pinky-brown stems and bright green, toothed leaves that are roughly triangular. The leaves are aromatic when crushed.

    The flowers are borne in autumn (April to June) in spikes at the ends of branches. The beautiful deep blue to mauve flowers attract bees and other pollinating insects to the garden.

    Hedgehog Sage is an ideal ingredient to a cottage garden, and contrasts beautifully with other plants flowering at this time of the year (for example: orange flowers of Leonotis leonurus and pink flowers of Hypoestes aristata and Syncolostemon densiflorus)

    To make sure that one can benefit from the lovely flowers in late autumn, it needs to be planted in a spot that is protected from frost. It prefers well-drained, well-composted soil in sun or semi-shade.

    Size: 1 to 2m tall

  85. Strelitzia reginae

    Strelitzia reginae is a hardy, evergreen shrub with large, ornamental, banana-like leaves.

    The brilliant orange and shimmering peacock-blue flowers have an interesting structure resembling an exotic bird and flower from May to Dec. The nectar attracts sunbirds while the black seeds with an orange aril attracts many seed eating birds to the garden.

    The blade-shaped leaves and flowers are widely used for flower arranging. This beautiful shrub makes a stunning accent and container plant. 

    On the Highveld and in other dry regions it grows best in partial shade.

    Size 1 to 1.75m

  86. Lippia javanica

    Lippia javanica is a very hardy, evergreen, erect, small shrub with aromatic leaves.

  87. Leonotis leonurus

    Leonotis leonurus is a very hardy, drought and frost resistant, evergreen perennial shrub.

    This well-loved, decorative shrub has masses of showy, compact clusters of orange or white, velvety flowers repeated in circles up the length of every long stalk from February. to July. 

    An important food and nectar plant for sunbirds, bees and butterflies during autumn and winter.

    Plant in sun or semi-shade and cut back severely after flowering for best results and mass flowering the next season.

    It has been grown as a garden plant in Europe since the 1600s.

    It is extensively used as a traditional medicinal and magical herb.

  88. Ruttya fruticosa

    Ruttya fruticosa is a fairly hardy, evergreen, beautiful rounded shrub with glossy dark green foliage.

    It bears unusual, exceptionally attractive two-lipped tubular orange or yellow flowers that have a shiny black in the throat.

    It blooms from spring to late summer and attracts bees, birds and butterflies.

    Plant in compost rich soil – it also tolerates slightly acidic soil.

    Prune back after flowering to keep in shape.

  89. Jasminum multipartitum

    Jasminum multipartitum is a very hardy, evergreen, fast-growing creeper or scrambler with small, glossy, dark-green foliage.

    It bears masses of fragrant, white (with deep pink undersides), star-shaped flowers, from August to January.

  90. Jasminum stenolobum

    Jasminum stenolobum is a hardy, evergreen, scandent, bushy shrub or climber, with glossy, dark-green leaves.

    Masses of large, fragrant, white, star-shaped flowers with a pink underside are borne from August to January.

  91. Polygala myrtifolia Riviersonderend

    Polygala myrtifolia "Riviersonderend" is a miniature form of the well-known Polygala myrtifolia.

  92. Salvia namaensis

    Salvia namaensis is a perennial, evergreen small shrub that is both drought and frost hardy.

    It has fine, dissected little leaves that are lime green, tough and aromatic. They, as well as the young branches are covered in tiny little hairs. Young branches are reddish purple.

    The small white to pale mauve flowers are borne in spring and summer. Many insects including bees and butterflies are attracted to the flowers.

    Plant in full sun, in well composted, well drained soil. Lovely contrasting foliage for bold-leaved plants with the same growing conditions. Makes a good container plant, but prune fairly regularly.

    Size to about 1m

  93. Karomia speciosa

    Karomia speciosa is a hardy, deciduous, sparsely-branched shrub or small tree with smooth, pale-grey bark.

  94. Acokanthera oppositifolia

    Acokanthera oppositifolia ia a hardy, evergreen, drought-resistant, medium to large upright, woody, shrub with brown, deeply fissured bark on the old wood.

  95. Aloe ferox

    Aloe ferox is a hardy, drought-resistant, single stemmed Aloe with a crown rosette of large, fleshy, succulent bluish-green leaves that have thorny margins.

  96. Aloe striatula

    Aloe striatula is a very hardy, robust, shrub-like, scrambling Aloe that has attractive, smooth, glossy, dark-green, curved leaves, carried on sturdy stems.

    The spikes of flowers are bright-yellow or orange on unbranched, flowering stems. It flowers from November to March and attracts insects and Sunbirds to the garden.

    An excellent plant for an exclusion zone of a bird garden or planted as a hedge.

    This Aloe can tolerate extremely low temperatures.It will grow in sun or semi-shade.

    Size: 7 to 1m

  97. Hypoestes aristata

    Hypoestes aristata is a hardy, evergreen, small to medium sized, rounded shrub with grey-green leaves that have lighter veins giving them a variegated look.

    It bears abundant spikes that are densely packed with 2-lipped deep purple flowers with darker purple spots in the middle of winter, from March to August, when very little else is in flower.

    The flowers attract butterflies and other insects to the garden which is a boon to the insect eating birds.

  98. Crassula arborescens

    Crassula arborescens is a hardy, evergreen, succulent, tree-like Crassula, which is unusual for this genus as they are usually relatively small plants.

    It has a thick, fleshy trunk with smooth, grey-green bark.The leaves are also fleshy and are an attractive, blue-grey colour with a red rim. They have a waxy, powdery bloom which helps to keep them cool.

    The attractive clusters of pink or white flowers are carried in densely-packed, rounded, branched, flowering heads from August to December.The flowers are nectar-rich and attract birds and insects to the garden.

    It has many medicinal uses.This unusual tree makes a great form and container plant.Plant as an element of a rock garden, on slopes or in a succulent garden.Flowers best in full sun but also grows well in semi-shade.

    Plant in well-drained soil.

    Size: up to 3m

  99. Crassula multicava Purple

    Crassula multicava 'Purple' is a hardy, evergreen, mat-forming, broad-leaved succulent plant. The leaves are purple on the underside, making this an attractive, colourful plant all year round, even when not in flower.

    From May to November it bears many sprays of dainty, star-shaped, pink flowers that attract a whole host of tiny insects.

  100. Crassula tetragona

    Crassula tetragona is a hardy, evergreen, succulent shrub with rows of bright-green, sword-shaped leaves.These are evenly arranged in crossed, opposite pairs along the stems, which are held upright in a vertical position.

    In summer and early autumn, it bears masses of tiny, creamy-white flowers in an inflorescence carried above the shrub.

    The compact, upright habit makes this an attractive plant.Makes a beautiful bonsai, or container plant in drier spots in the garden.

    Plant in sun or semi-shade.

    Size: up to 1m

  101. Freylinia tropica

    Freylina tropica is a very hardy, evergreen, slender shrub that has spreading branches, smooth grey bark and shiny, bright green leaves.

    It blooms profusely in late winter when little else is flowering but does bear white or lilac flowers throughout the year.

    Attracts insects and butterflies to the garden.

  102. Strelitzia juncea

    Strelitzia juncea is a lovely addition to the garden. This hardy, evergreen plant forms a bushy clump of tough, cylindrical leaves. The interesting leaves and shape make this a stunning accent and container plant.

    The brilliant orange and shimmering peacock-blue flowers have an interesting structure resembling an exotic bird, and flower from May to October.

    The beautiful, flowers attract a number of different bird species to the garden. The nectar attracts sunbirds while the black seeds with an orange aril attracts many seed eating birds to the garden. Use both the long lasting flowers and leaves for flower arranging.

    Plant in well-drained, rich soil in full sun or partial shade.

    Size up to 1.5m

  103. Pelargonium salmoneum

    Pelargonium salmoneum is an evergreen, extremely drought hardy, semi-succulent Pelargonium which has yellowish green leaves.

    As its name suggests, the flowers are a bright, salmon pink. They are held above the leaves on a flowering stalk that bears up to 20 flowers. Peak flowering times are between June and December.

    It makes an excellent container plant and does very well in open ground in the garden as well. It is the perfect height as a "mid-shrub", to plant taller shrubs behind it and shorter bedding plants in the front.

    Size up to 75cm

  104. Zanthoxylum capense

    Zanthoxylum capense is a hardy, deciduous to semi-deciduous small to medium-sized tree, with smooth, dark grey bark and broad, cone-shaped knobs that are topped with a short spine. The leaves are divided into leaflets, that are shiny and dark green above, and paler beneath. When crushed they are somewhat brittle and have a strong Citrus scent.

    From October to February, the tiny, white, scented flowers are clustered at the ends of the branches. The male and female flowers are borne on separate trees. Female trees develop clusters of tiny orange-red fruits that split to release oil-rich black seeds. The fruit is edible but cause a burning sensation in the mouth.

    Both flowers and fruit attract many insects and birds to the garden. It is a host plant to the Citrus Swallowtail and other Swallowtail Butterflies. This tree is widely used in traditional medicine remedies, and the wood is used for implements.

    It makes an excellent container plant, or part of a forest garden or plant singly as a specimen tree to prune up and expose the interesting, knobbly stem.

    Plant in semi-shade or full sun, in well-drained, compost rich soil.

    Size: 2 to 15m

  105. Thespesia acutiloba

    Thespesia acutiloba is a hardy, semi-deciduous small tree or large shrub with pale grey bark that becomes furrowed with age.

  106. Thunbergia natalensis

    Thunbergia natalensis is a hardy, deciduous, herbaceous shrublet with large, attractive, heart-shaped leaves that sometimes have wavy margins.

    From October to March, it bears beautiful, sky-blue, trumpet-shaped flowers with yellow centres. They attract insects to the garden.

    Traditionally it is used as a charm to ensure a happy marriage.

    It is a particularly useful size for planting under trees and shrubs.

    Plant in well-drained soil in shady or semi-shade areas of the garden for a splash of colour under trees.

    Size 0,5 to 1m

  107. Ochna serrulata

    Ochna serrulata is a hardy, small, semi-deciduous shrub with glossy, mirror-like leaves that flush red in spring.

    The profuse, bright yellow, scented flowers are borne from September to December.

    The flowers are short lived but are followed by black fruit on an enlarged red calyx that looks like a flower and persists on the shrub for months.

    As with Ochna natalitia this plant deserves pride of place in any garden. The seeds attract birds to the garden.

  108. Ehretia rigida

    Ehretia rigida is a very hardy, deciduous, drought resistant, attractive shrub with an interesting shape.

  109. Euryops pectinatus

    Euryops pectinatus is a very hardy, attractive, fast growing, evergreen, free flowering shrub that has soft grey-green foliage.

    It bears bright yellow daisies all year round but in profusion in spring.

    It grows best in well-drained, well-composted soil in the full sun and flowers most of the year if deadheaded regularly. Water well in winter as this is its main growing season.

    The flowers attract butterflies and insects to the garden.It makes a particularly beautiful, informal hedge.

    Size 1m x 1m

  110. Euryops virgineus

    Euryops virgineus is a very hardy, fast growing, evergreen shrub that is both drought and wind resistant.

    It has attractive, dense, fine bright green leaves and is covered in masses of small, golden-yellow flowers in winter and early spring.

    The sweetly scented flowers attract insects to the garden.

    Plant in full sun and prune back at least once a year after flowering and make sure it is watered in winter .

  111. Ficus abutilifolia

    Ficus abutilifolia is a hardy, deciduous, small to medium sized fig tree that has beautiful, large, heart-shaped leaves.

  112. Portulacaria afra

    Portulacaria afra is a hardy, evergreen, neatly shaped, small tree or shrub with pretty round, succulent leaves and ruby red branches.

    The leaves have a pleasant acid flavour and can be used in salads.

    From October to January, after rain, it is covered in clear pink to rosy mauve, nectar rich flowers - a wonderful sight. The papery 3-winged ornamental fruits resemble pinkish lanterns.

    Plant in well-drained soil in sun or shade.

    Useful for binding soil.

  113. Sclerocarya birrea

    Sclerocarya birrea is a fairly hardy, medium to large, deciduous tree with a rounded crown and beautiful mottled bark. It has large compound leaves crowded at the ends of the branches.

    It bears inconspicuous red and yellow flowers from September to November. Male and female flowers on separate plants therefore only the females bear fruit.

  114. Sclerocarya birrea

    Sclerocarya birrea is a fairly hardy, medium to large, deciduous tree with a rounded crown and beautiful mottled bark. It has large compound leaves crowded at the ends of the branches.

    It bears inconspicuous red and yellow flowers from September to November. Male and female flowers on separate plants therefore only the females bear fruit.

  115. Bauhinia tomentosa

    Bauhinia tomentosa is a hardy, fast growing, drought resistant, deciduous, scandent shrub with deeply lobed leaves, like butterfly wings.

    It bears masses of lemon yellow, bell-like flowers with a purple blotch at the base of one petal and flowers throughout summer.

    Plant in full sun or partial shade.

  116. Rhus pyroides

    Rhus (Searsia) pyroides is a very hardy, deciduous, drought-resistant tree that tolerates extreme conditions of drought and cold and makes a wonderful pioneer.

  117. Rotheca myricoides

    Rotheca myricoides (= Clerodendrum myricoides) is a fairly hardy, medium sized, evergreen, very decorative shrub with beautiful foliage. 

    It has massed spikes of purple flowers in spring and summer which attract the beautiful Carpenter Bees. 

    The edible fruit attracts birds to the garden.

  118. Dracaena aletriformis

    Dracaena aletriformis is a fairly hardy, evergreen, shade loving, Yucca-like accent plant.

  119. Acacia burkei

    Acacia burkei (=Senegalia burkei) is a hardy, deciduous, medium sized Acacia that has attractive, large round leaflets.

    Spikes of white flowers from October to January are followed by bright red seed pods.

    This beautiful specimen tree gives dense shade, but is a little slow growing.

  120. Acacia nigrescens

    Acacia nigrescens (=Senegalia nigrescens) is a hardy, small to large stately deciduous tree is characterised by its knob-studded grey or yellow trunk and branches. The hooked spine-tipped knobs are prevalent on young trees but are less evident on older specimens.

    Sweetly-scented spikes of creamy-white flowers are produced from August to November. When in flower this tree is alive and humming with the multitude of insects and birds that feast on the pollen and nectar offered up. 

    It is an important browse tree for game and generally indicates good ranching land.The graceful, tall canopy attracts Paradise Flycatchers and hole-nesting birds. It is the host plant of the Demon Emperor Butterfly.The wood is very hard and used extensively. 

    It makes a good bonsai and container subject.It grows in a wide variety of soil types in full sun. 

    Size: 5 to 18 metres

  121. Acacia brevispica

    Acacia brevispica (=Senegalia brevispica) is a hardy, semi-deciduous, robust, prickly, scrambling Acacia that can be trained into a large beautiful shrub.

    It has feathery, large, soft, bipinnate leaves with small hook thorns along the ribs on the underside.

  122. Ficus craterostoma

    Ficus craterostoma is a fairly hardy, semi-decidious, medium sized strangler fig with a rounded, spreading crown and pale grey bark. It has fairly small leaves for a fig, which are dark glossy green, blunt tipped like a fish’s tail, and spirally arranged, making them an exceptionally attractive feature of this plant.

    The stalkless, hairless figs, which are inverted flowers, are borne in the axils of the leaves. The small figs turn yellowish red when ripe from May to December.

    The figs attract many fruit-eating birds to the garden. Makes a wonderful container plant or bonsai.

    Plant in sun or shade.

    Figs should not be planted close to walls and paving as they have aggressive root system.

    Size: 5 to 10m

  123. Hypoestes aristata White

    Hypoestes aristata white is a hardy, evergreen, small to medium sized, rounded shrub with grey-green leaves that have lighter veins giving them a variegated look.

    It bears abundant spikes of 2-lipped white flowers in the middle of winter, from March to August, when very little else is in flower.

    The flowers attract butterflies and other insects to the garden which is a boon to the insect eating birds.

  124. Metarungia pubinervia

    Metarungia pubinervia is a hardy, deciduous to semi-deciduous, fast growing, medium or large sized shrub with attractive, large, almost quilted, dark green leaves.

    The beautiful, bright red flowers that resemble snap-dragons, are borne along the tops of the stems from April to June. Their nectar attracts Sunbirds, which are their pollinators, as well as a whole host of insects that find it irresistible.

    It makes a lovely understory shrub.

    Plant in semi-shade or shade, in compost rich soil.

    Size: up to 4m

  125. Syncolostemon densiflorus

    Syncolostemon densiflorus is a hardy, evergreen, medium-sized, herbaceous, multi-stemmed shrub. It has velvety, white stems with bright-green leaves.

  126. Metalasia muricata

    Metalasia muricata is a hardy, evergreen medium-sized shrub that is very variable in appearance and frost hardiness, depending on the region in which it occurs. This rounded, robust, sturdy shrub has fine silvery grey-green, needle-like foliage. The leaves can be smooth or woolly.

    In winter, the shrub is covered in honey-scented clusters of tiny white to pinky-purple flowers.

    The flowers attract many pollinating insects, and the seeds are eaten by birds.

    Dried leaves are used as tea in Lesotho.

    It is useful as a tall filler in flower beds, providing grey-green foliage for colour and textural contrast. In some coastal areas, this species is used with other plants to stabilise sand dunes. As it is drought and wind tolerant, it can be used to screen lower plant beds from the wind.

    Plant in sunny areas, in sandy, well drained soils. It can also tolerate acidic soils.

    Size to 4m

  127. Bolusanthus speciosus

    Bolusanthus speciosus is a hardy, graceful, briefly deciduous, drought resistant tree with graceful grey-green almost weeping foliage.

    The huge, pendulous bunches of beautiful mauve pea-like flowers that are born in September and October are truly spectacular.

  128. Aristea ecklonii

    Aristea ecklonii is hardy, evergreen, clump-forming, perennial bulbous plant with narrow, strap-like, slightly pleated leaves that are carried in a fan.

    It bears flowering stems of amazing pale to deep mauve-blue flowers from August to March. There is a white flowered form grown at Random Harvest nursery (see gallery of pictures).

    It requires morning sun as the flowers open in succession early in the day and close in the afternoon. 

    It grows best in moist conditions near ponds or well-watered areas.